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Month: January 2023

EDDL-5131 Week 4, Activity 2 – Information Architecture

I followed the guidelines for textual elements design as described in Gutierrez (2014) and Webster (2018) to maximize readaility of the moose article.

First, I read the article in its entirety, then I created some headings and subheadings to organized the content.

Second, I placed related content under the same subheading accordingly, at the same time I put them into bullet points so it is easier to read. I organized information about moose population into a table format to improve readability.

Third, I adjusted the font and sizes based on the guidelines. I also added some relevant graphics to add visual interest to the content.




The moose is a member of the New World deer subfamily and is one of the largest and heaviest animals in North America. It is common in areas such as Canada and Alaska. The moose is best known for its gigantic body size and impressive antlers.  The sighting of moose during one’s trip can be an exhilarating experience.


Some Facts about Moose

Physical Appearance

Weight: Typically weighing 360 kg (794 lb).

Height: 5 to 6.5 feet at shoulder.


  • Broad and palmate (flat) with tines (points) along the outer edge.
  • Male’s antlers grow as cylindrical beams projecting on each side of the head at right angles to the midline of the skull, and then fork.
  • The lower prong of this fork may be either simple, or divided into two or three tines, with some flattening.
  • Bull moose use dominant displays of antlers to discourage competition and will spar or fight rivals.
  • The size and growth rate of antlers is determined by diet and age; symmetry reflects health.
  • By the age of 13, moose antlers decline in size and symmetry.
  • The widest spread recorded was 210 centimeters (83 in) across.
          • An Alaskan moose also holds the record for the heaviest weight at 36 kilograms (79 lb)).



  • Have two large keratinized hooves corresponding to the third and fourth toe, with two small posterolateral dewlaps (vestigial digits), corresponding to the second and fifth toe.
  • The hoof of the fourth digit is broader than that of the third digit.
  • The inner hoof of the third digit is longer than that of the fourth digit.
  • This foot configuration may favor striding on soft ground.
  • The moose hoof splays under load, increasing surface area, which limits sinking of the moose foot into soft ground or snow, and     which  increases efficiency when swimming.


  • includes both aquatic plants and terrestrial vegetation consisting of forbs and other non-grasses, and fresh shoots from trees such as willow and birch.
  • These plants are rather low in sodium, and moose generally need to consume a good quantity of aquatic plants.
  • Aquatic plants provide the moose with its sodium requirements, and as much as half of their diet usually consists of aquatic plant life.
  • Often drawn to roadways, to lick salt that is used as a snow and ice melter in winter.
  • Needs to consume 9,770 kcal (40.9 MJ) per day to maintain its body weight.
  • Can eat up to 32 kg (71 lb) of food per day.



  • Require habitat with adequate edible plants (e.g., pond grasses, young trees and shrubs), cover from predators, and protection from extremely hot or cold weather.
  • Typically inhabit boreal forests and temperate broadleaf and mixed forests of the Northern Hemisphere in temperate to subarctic climates.
  • Travel among different habitats with the seasons to address survival requirements.
  • Are cold-adapted mammals with thickened skin, dense, heat-retaining coat, and a low surface:volume ratio, which provides excellent cold tolerance but poor heat tolerance.
  • Survive hot weather by accessing shade or cooling wind, or by immersion in cool water.
  • When heat-stressed, moose may fail to adequately forage in summer and may not gain adequate body fat to survive the winter.
  • Require access to both young forest for browsing and mature forest for shelter and cover.
  • Also require access to mineral licks, safe places for calving and aquatic feeding sites.
  • Select habitat on the basis of trade-offs between risk of predation, food availability, and snow depth.
  • Avoid areas with little or no snow as this increases the risk of predation by wolves and avoid areas with deep snow, as this impairs mobility.



Currently, most moose are found in Canada, Alaska, New England (with Maine having the most of the lower 48 states), Fennoscandia, Baltic states, and Russia.

Table 1. Moose Populations in Various Countries

Country Number of Moose Note
Canada 500,000 to 1,000,000
US 300,000
Finland 115,000 2009 figure
Norway 120,000
Latvia 21,000 2015 figure
Estonia 13,260
Poland 2,800
Czech Republic 50
Russia 600,000 2007 figure
Sweden 300,000–400,000 Around 100,000 are shot each fall. About 10,000 are killed in traffic accidents yearly.



  • Most common moose predators – gray wolf, bears and humans.
  • Predators for a full-grown moose: Siberian tigers, packed gray wolves, brown bears.
  • American black bears (Ursus americanus) and cougars (Puma concolor) can be significant predators of moose calves in May and June.
  • Wolverine (Gulo gulo) are most likely to eat moose as carrion but have killed moose, including adults, when the large ungulates are weakened by harsh winter conditions.
  • Killer whales (Orcinus orca) are the moose’s only known marine predator as they have been known to prey on moose swimming between islands out of North America’s Northwest Coast.



  • Not usually aggressive towards humans.
  • Can be provoked or frightened to behave with aggression.
  • May act aggressively when denied food If used to being fed by people.
  • Bull moose may be aggressive toward humans during the fall mating season due to the high hormone levels.
  • Not territorial; will usually not pursue humans if they simply run away.


EDDL 5131, Week 3, Activity 2 – Accessibility Checklist

Our school has made substantial efforts to maintain an accessible website which meets WCAG standards and AODA requirements. However, I am not aware of the existence of an accessibility checklist for teaching. During the COVID-19 pandemic, I used primarily Zoom for teaching. I developed the following accessibility checklist and tried it against a recorded Zoom session I delivered last year. There were a few things I could have done for the students to facilitate their learning, for example, I didn’t always keep in mind how people learn when creating teaching materials.

  • Turn on the Closed Captions or Automatic Captions features so the learners can see subtitles during instruction.
  • Turn on the “Mute Participants Upon Entry” option to minimize disruptions at the start of a class.
  • Always describe visual content that is showing on the screen; also explain what you are writing on the Whiteboard.
  • Tell participants how they can ask questions, i.e. via chat function, use hand-raising symbol and un-mute function. Repeat questions they written in the chat.
  • Email resource links posted in Chat after the class.
  • Consider recording your Zoom sessions so students may review them.
  • Choose materials that address learners’ needs, interests, and learning preferences.
  • Make content relevant.  Explain concepts with lots of examples.
  • Ensure to turn captions on for videos you posted for the class. Ensure transcripts are available.
  • Create material in an accessible format i.e. Microsoft Word, PowerPoint; provide both the source files and PDF files.
  • Create materials that are consistent with how people learn. When presenting information in words and pictures, avoid overloading learners with too much information.
  • Use arrows, outline, and headings to help learners organize and process information.
  • Eliminate irrelevant words and images; present complex information in chunks.
  • Provide opportunities for learners to engage in materials in different ways i.e. reading, small group discussions, internet simulations, and breakout rooms.



Microassist. Accessibility checklist: 10 critical areas to evaluate for website accessibility. Digital Accessibility Digest.

Standard University. Accessibility considerations for online teaching.


University of Washington, DO-IT. Equal Access: Universal design of instruction

Equal Access: Universal Design of Instruction | DO-IT (washington.edu)

Yale University. Zoom accessibility best practices for Zoom meetings





EDDL 5131- Week 3, Activity 3: Integrating UDL

I taught an ESP (English for Specific Purposes) course during the pandemic. Students attending this class were 15 adults with ages range from 18 – 24. There were a small number of mature students. Students enrolled in this program to build their English language skills in preparation for higher level of academic studies.  Chinese students made up the bulk of the class (~60%) with the remainder a fairly eclectic mix of Koreans, Japanese, Central & South Americans, and Middle Easterners. All students have completed Grade 12 or the equivalent, with some students achieving Bachelor or Graduate degrees from their home countries. Though students were in the general range of CLB 8 (CEFR B2), there was considerable disparity in proficiency in the various skill areas. The Latins and Middle Easterners tended to be stronger in Speaking and Listening, whereas the East Asians typically excelled in Reading and Grammar.

EDDL: 5131: Week 2 Activity 4 – OER Scavenger Hunt

In a blog post, describe two or three of the resources you found (include a link). Rate each resource for:

  • how closely it matched the topic and level you teach;
  • the quality of the resource; and
  • whether you could use the resource as is, or you would need to adapt it.
  • If you think you would need to adapt any of your resources, describe the process this might involve.

I am in awe of the amount of OER that are available for use as I was going through the collection list. After digging into some

potential sites, I managed to find the following two resources that match the topics I teach:


Resource Name Source & Link Match my Topic Quality Need for Adaptation
Video: Climate Change  

NSDL | NSDL (oercommons.org)


(778) Climate Change Basics (OLD) – YouTube



Yes, closely matched my topic Excellent o         This short video is a great resource to use when I teach about climate change and global warming.

o         It provides an introduction to the issue of climate change. It also offers practical solutions to help us protect our planet’s future.


o         No adaptation is needed for me.


Video: Let’s Learn English at a Grocery Store






Yes, closely matched my topic Good o       This is a short video that shows the key sessions of a grocery store. It is a great resource for ESL instructors when they teach grocery shopping.

o       I like the video because it is Canadian.

o       The presenter speaks slowly and clearly; perfect for low level of ESL learners.

o       The video gives the viewers a good idea of what a Canadian grocery store looks like. It also enhances their vocabulary.



o         I would incorporate a pointer onto the video to highlight the food items to correspond to the narration.

o         I would make the video interactive by posting quizzes or open questions for students.

Open Education Resources – Activity 3: Read and Post

Write a short portfolio post explaining your possible needs for open education resources in your teaching. Do you need something you can adapt? Something you can share by copying? Something free? What sort of content can you see yourself contributing as an open education resource?

As an ESL instructor, having the means to access a plethora of teaching resources is vitally important for me. I am so thrilled to have discovered the existence of open education resources. There are so many potential resources I could use in my teaching, for example, curricula, syllabi, assignments, tests, videos, and course materials. I need something free as the instructors do not get a budget for teaching materials. I also need something that I can just copy or adapt to meet the language proficiency levels and needs of the learners. In terms of the type of content I can contribute as open education resources, I can see myself offering course materials, student worksheets, lecture notes, lesson plans, and interactive learning activities.

About Chwen

Chwen has a background in food and nutrition. She is currently working as a Research Dietitian at McMaster University.  Chwen was involved in a number of research projects and published two studies in a peer review journal. She taught two semesters of  Community Nutrition course at Brescia University (London, Ontario) a few years ago.

Chwen is also a certified ESL instructor and has been working as an ESL supply instructor at a local school board for over a year. Chwen enjoys hiking, resistant training, traveling, and reading.

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