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Month: June 2023

EDDL-5151 Blog Post 5

Three things that you may be able to put into practice in your teaching and how they could impact your learners

Three things I can implement in my teaching are network learning, making learning visible, and open educational practices.

 Networked Learning: Dr. Alec Couros defines network learning as the idea that networks matter in education and are one of the most important concepts in teaching and learning in the 21st century. He emphasizes the significance of social networks in teaching and learning, the role they play in connecting individuals and facilitating learning experiences. Learners benefit from increased access to information and resources, collaboration with peers, and the sharing of knowledge.

 Making Learning Visible: This involves showcasing and sharing the learning process, progress, and outcomes. It empowers students, increases motivation and engagement, and encourages peer collaboration. Examples include presentations, projects, discussions, exhibitions, and multimedia creations.

 Open Educational Practices: Open educational practices involve “ collaborative practices that include the creation, use, and reuse of OER, as well as pedagogical practices employing participatory technologies and social networks for interaction, peer-learning, knowledge creation, and empowerment of learners.” (Cronin, 2017). Benefits for the learners include access to high-quality resources, develop digital literacies, promote social learning,  customized learning experiences, and collaboration and knowledge sharing among learners.

Implementing these practices in my teaching context will equip learners with essential digital skills, ensure inclusivity and engagement, and provide access to high-quality educational resources.


Two things that you need to be increasingly aware of in your current use of technology that you would like to change or improve

In my current utilization of technology, there are two aspects that demand increasing awareness: my mental health and well-being, as well as privacy and data protection.

Throughout the day, I heavily rely on computers and other digital devices for work and school-related projects. Unfortunately, I’ve noticed negative effects on my eyesight and sleep patterns due to prolonged computer usage. My vision has deteriorated, necessitating a new prescription for my glasses, and I struggle to fall asleep at night, particularly if I engage in computer work before bedtime. The increased reliance on technology significantly impacts my overall mental well-being. I need to establish a balance between technology usage and offline activities.

Privacy and data protection present another crucial area for caution. Recently, I experienced a distressing incident when providing my credit card information online for a free trial subscription. Despite discontinuing the subscription within the trial period, the company continued to charge my credit card monthly. Canceling my credit card was the only way to resolve this issue. This unfortunate encounter served as a valuable lesson, emphasizing the importance of safeguarding personal data and maintaining stringent privacy practices.


 One recommendation you would like to make to your institution about the use of technology that would have a potentially wider impact across the institution

One recommendation I would like to propose to my institution, with the potential for a broad impact across the organization, is the adoption of a learning management system (LMS). Presently, our school operates without the utilization of any LMS, resulting in instructors having to manage various tasks manually, such as grading, exam scores, and performance reports.

I would like to suggest the implementation of a robust LMS, such as Moodle, Canvas, D2L Brightspace, or Blackboard. The introduction of a comprehensive LMS can offer numerous advantages to our school, for example,  it provides a centralized platform for efficient course management, enables upload and deliver of course activities, allows access and sharing of high-quality online learning resources, data and reports, grading, and assignment submission. By utilizing an LMS, we can establish consistent and streamlined processes across all courses, facilitating effective communication between students and faculty.

Considering the size of our school, the adoption of a robust LMS has the potential to generate a substantial impact across the entire institution.


 One thing that could help improve teaching with technology in your area

Canva is a technology tool that has the potential to greatly enhance teaching in my area. I was introduced to Canva during the EDDL-5131 course, and since then, it has become an integral part of my teaching practice.

As a popular web-based graphic design tool, Canva offers a vast array of templates, elements, text styles, and backgrounds. Its value in the education field is immense, providing numerous benefits such as increased student engagement, collaboration, and visual communication. Moreover, it fosters creativity in the classroom, develops design skills in both students and teachers, and enables timely assessment and feedback. Additionally, Canva offers significant time and cost savings in terms of production for teachers, and its seamless integration with other classroom tools makes it even more versatile and user-friendly.



Bouchrika, I. (MAY 9, 2023). List of learning management systems for schools and  universities.https://research.com/software/list-of-learning-management-systems-for-schools-and-universities

Connected Learning Alliance. (2013). Professor Alec Couros: “The connected teacher” [Video]. Vimeo. https://vimeo.com/46442363

Cronin, C. (2017). Openness and praxis: Exploring the use of open educational practices in higher education. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning,18(5). https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v18i5.3096

Ugwu II, P. (2022, Dec 6). Blog Using Canva for education. https://patugwu.com/

Valamis. (May 10, 2023).What is an LMS? LMS Overview.




EDDL-5151 – Blog Post 4 Script for Audio Recording

This recording is for Blog Post #4, my reflections on the key elements of what I have gained from the readings in Unit 4.

Unit 4 explores the exciting world of learning design and delivery with digital technologies. From promoting collaboration and networking among students to critical pedagogies and emerging web technologies.

Here are some key elements that I gained from the readings:

First, the importance of Online Learning: Online learning is not just about improving access to education but also about developing 21st-century skills, such as digital skills, independent learning, critical thinking, and communication.

 Second, the role of Technology in Teaching and Learning: Digital technologies and environments open up new avenues for teaching and learning. It is important to ensure that these technologies are used effectively to enhance our learning experience.

Third, Collaboration and Networking: Digital tools facilitate collaboration, networking and communication among students and educators.  Building connections and relationships within networks can have long-lasting outcomes and contribute to networked or connected learning.

Four, Pedagogical Approaches: It is crucial to ensure that the use of technology aligns with sound pedagogical principles. Technology should be integrated purposefully to support learning objectives and instructional strategies, rather than being used for the sake of using technology

Finally, Training and Support: Teachers need adequate support, training and ongoing professional development to effectively implement online and blended learning approaches.

These key elements provide a general overview of the main points discussed in unit 4.


Now I would like to reflect on two resources that are of particular interest to me.

The first article is entitled “Toward Understanding The Role Of Web 2.0 Technology In Self-Directed Learning And Job Performance by Shirley Caruso from Northeastern Illinois University, USA


The 2nd resource is a video clip of an interview with Professor Couros on the connected teacher.

Connected Learning Alliance. (2013). Professor Alec Couros: “The connected teacher” [Video]. Vimeo. https://vimeo.com/46442363

I will discuss each of the resources by addressing the four questions posted at the end of unit 4.

Caruso, S. J. (2018). Toward understanding the role of Web 2.0 technology in self-directed learning and job performance

Caruso’s paper provides valuable insights into how the use of Web 2.0 technologies in organizational settings can benefit employees, organizations, and human resource development professionals. It also delves into adult learners’ preferences and motivations when engaging in self-directed learning with the emergence of Web 2.0 technology.

What is the main position, hypothesis, argument, or finding of the pdf file?

The author (Caruso) argues that Web 2.0 technology has transformed the way employees engage in self-directed learning, providing them with access to a range of tools and platforms that enhance their learning experiences. The findings of her research suggest that the integration of Web 2.0 technology into organizational learning can benefit employees, organizations, and human resource development professionals.

What do you agree with or disagree with, and why?

I agree with the author about the concept and role of the Web 2.0 and benefits of integrating Web 2.0 technology into organizational learning.  however the adoption of such technology by an organization may require further study and investigation. For example, Web 2.0 technologies often involve sharing information and collaborating online. Companies that deal with highly sensitive or confidential information may be hesitant to adopt Web 2.0 technology due to concerns about data breaches, unauthorized access, or potential security vulnerabilities. They may prioritize data protection and opt for more secure communication and collaboration methods. Furthermore, With the vast amount of information available through Web 2.0 technologies, employees may face challenges in filtering and managing the information effectively. This can lead to information overload and hinder productivity if not properly managed.

How does it apply to your own context?

The general principles and best practices outlined in the paper can be applied to public health setting where I work.  Public Health requires to communicate with the public, and will likely find Web 2.0 technologies  effective in getting their word out, enable collaborative work with external stakeholders as well as within and among agencies. In addition, public health can benefit from the integration of Web 2.0 technology into their learning and development programs, providing employees with access to a range of tools and platforms that support their learning and development needs.

What recommendations would you make for your organization in relation to what you have learned?

The recommendations I would make for the company I work include the following:

  1. Providing clear guidelines and policies: identify and endorse specific Web 2.0 tools that are beneficial to our work environment and establish clear guidelines and policies that define the scope and use of Web 2.0 technologies in the workplace.
  2. Creating incentive structures: These incentives can include recognition, rewards, or other forms of motivation to entice employees to engage with these technologies.
  3. Providing training and support: Employees may face challenges in using Web 2.0 technologies, HR Department should play a critical role in guiding and training employees to overcome their challenges and support their learning experiences.


Connected Learning Alliance. (2013). Professor Alec Couros: “The connected teacher” [Video]. Vimeo. https://vimeo.com/46442363


Now I like to move on to the video. In this interview, Dr. Alec Couros, a renowned professor of educational technology and media at University of Regina, shares his insights on the significance of networks in teaching and learning in the 21st century.

What is the main position, hypothesis, argument, or finding of the pdf file?

Dr. Couros emphasizes the significance of social networks in teaching and learning, and highlights the role they play in connecting individuals and facilitating learning experiences. He believes that educators and learners can enhance their understanding and make their learning visible by recognizing and leveraging these networks.

What do you agree with or disagree with, and why?

I really like the concept of “what endures beyond” mentioned in the interview. I agreed with Dr. Couros the importance of focusing on what we think will endure in the future. In the context of networked learning, I think that by focusing on what endures beyond the tools and technologies, we can identify the essential skills, knowledge, and competencies that are critical for success in the long term. These enduring aspects may include critical thinking, problem-solving, creativity, collaboration, and communication skills, among others.

How does Dr Couros’s teachings apply to my own context?

Overall, Dr. Couros’s teachings can be applied to an educational context where I work by encouraging reflective practice, fostering a learning community, leveraging network connections, making learning visible, and reversing the priority of teaching and learning activities.

What recommendations would you make for your organization in relation to what you have learned?

 Based on Dr. Couros’s teachings, the recommendations I could make to my workplace setting include the following:

  1. Foster a Culture of Continuous Learning: Encourage employees to engage in continuous learning and professional development.


  1. Encourage Knowledge Sharing: Create a collaborative work environment where employees are encouraged to share their knowledge and expertise with their colleagues.


  1. Embrace Technology and Digital Tools: Leverage technology and digital tools to enhance communication, collaboration, and knowledge sharing among employees.


  1. Promote Reflective Practice: Encourage employees to reflect on their work experiences and learn from them.


  1. Facilitate Networking and Connections: Encourage employees to build and maintain professional networks both within and outside the organization.


By implementing these recommendations, workplaces can create a culture of continuous learning, collaboration, and knowledge sharing, which can contribute to employee growth, innovation, and overall organizational success.


EDDL – 5151 Draft Final Project








The Use of Chatbot in Language Learning and Teaching



Chwen Binkley

Thompson Rivers University


EDDL 5151: Contemporary Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

Professor Keith Webster

June 22, 2023




The integration of technology in language acquisition has gained significant attention in recent years. Among the innovative tools being explored is the use of chatbots, computer application designed to imitate human conversation through text or voice-based interactions. This literature review examines the use of chatbots in the context of language learning and teaching, focusing on their definition, history, benefits, limitations, critical issues, effects on student performance, and language chatbot design for the future, specifically, chatbots for second language learning.

The benefits of chatbots include round-the-clock availability, an abundance of linguistic information, tireless assistance in learning endeavors, and valuable support for educators in tasks like lesson planning, grading, and assessment. Some of the limitations include technological constraints, novelty effects, and cognitive load. Critical issues involve ethics, chatbot response accuracy, cultural bias, and potential replacement of human teachers. Effects on student performance are examined. Design recommendations stress considering students’ language competency levels, providing relevant information instead of mimicking human interactions, and balancing input to avoid overload.

By examining these various aspects, this paper aims to contribute to the understanding of how chatbots can be effectively utilized in language learning and teaching contexts.


This research paper aims to explore the use of chatbot in language learning and teaching. Language acquisition, including effective teaching approaches that support language learning, is a fundamental aspect of education, and such innovative methods hold immense value.

My initial exposure to chatbot technology came through my sister, who is employed at the University of Taiwan. The school hosted an engaging workshop on Chat-GPT, which attracted an unusually large number of attendees. Students were excited by the potential of this tool to help them with the writing of their research paper and other assignments.

The concept of using AI technology like Chat-GPT to support one’s learning piques my interest. Through personal experience, I have leveraged Chat-GPT for some work projects and have been amazed by its capabilities. As an ESL instructor, I believe that this AI tool holds significant promise as an aid for both teachers and students.

There is a strong belief that chatbots will ultimately emerge as the ideal companions for language learning, offering the remarkable capability to master languages without constraints of time or location. (Fryer, 2020). The topic is of interest as it explores the weaving of chatbots into language learning and teaching and investigates the optimal ways to integrate technology into language classrooms. This literature review exams empirical studies that explore the utilization of chatbots in language learning and teaching. It delves into various aspects, such as their features, developmental history, applications, benefits, limitations, and challenges. The goal is to gather insights regarding the application, design, critical concerns, optimal approaches, and guidelines for integrating chatbots into language classroom. Additionally, it highlights potential research areas that can further advance our understanding of the use of chatbots in language learning and teaching.

Literature Review

Definition and Background of Chatbot

A chatbot, also known as a chatterbot, is a software application that attempts to simulate human conversation through text or voice-based interactions, commonly found online (Wikipedia, 2023). Chatbots have a long history, dating back several decades and have been used in various areas, including but not limited to e-commerce and website support. They have also ventured into specific domains such as formal and informal counseling, broader healthcare issues, education on sensitive topics, stress management, library support, and personal support (Fryer, 2019; Fryer, 2020). However, the most inherent and potentially significant application of chatbots is undoubtedly their utilization for language practice (Fryer, 2019).

The development of chatbots for language learning has gained significant attention in recent years due to the increasing demand for convenient and personalized language learning experiences (Fryer, 2020).  There are various AI algorithms available to enhance language learning, such as natural language processing (NLP), computer-assisted language learning (CALL), mobile-assisted language learning (MALL), and intelligent tutoring systems (ITS). These algorithms have the potential to offer learners immediate feedback and personalized learning materials, aiding them in reaching their language learning objectives. Moreover, digital assistants like Amazon’s Alexa and Apple’s Siri can leverage speech synthesis and recognition technologies to assist learners with everyday language-related tasks (Adamopoulou, 2020; Almelhe, 2023).

According to Huang (2021), the most common types of chatbot interface designs can be categorized into two types: web-based interfaces and mobile messenger interfaces. With web-based chatbots, students can engage in conversations through computers or tablets. On the other hand, mobile messenger chatbots are seamlessly integrated into popular instant messaging applications such as Facebook Messenger, WhatsApp, WeChat, and Line. This integration allows students to interact with the chatbots as if they were having a conversation with a friend. These chatbots provide learners with an opportunity to practice their English skills in a supportive and immersive environment. Some of popular chatbots for English language learning include Duolingo, HelloTalk, Rosetta Stone, ELSA, BBC Learning English Chatbot, and ChatGPT, Mondly, Cleverbot (Fitria, 2021; Fryer, 2019).

Benefits of Chatbots for Language Learning

Language learning has become increasingly convenient and easier with the advancements in technology and the emergence of various platforms (Fitria ,2021). Language chatbots offer a range of functionalities to support language learners effectively. According to Huang (2021), Language learning chotbots have the following three common features:

First, they are available 24/7, allowing students to practice their language skills at any time. This accessibility is not easily possible with human partners.

Second, chatbots can provide students with a wide range of language information that human partners may lack. This includes various expressions, questions, and vocabulary that can enhance language learning.

Third, chatbots can serve as tireless assistants. They can engage in repetitive tasks and endless communication with students, offering continuous opportunities to practice the new language.

Kohnke, 2022 and Kohnke, 2023 highlight these additional features: promoting interaction, modifying communication output, creating an authentic and interactive language-learning environment, conducting formative assessments, and providing immediate feedback. Furthermore, chatbots engage learners, expand language capabilities, sustain motivation, reduce shyness, and minimize the perceived distance between learners and teachers (Hong, 2023). ChatGPT, a digital tool developed by OpenAI, is one of the most advanced AI-powered chatbots that was recently released. Although it is not specifically designed as a language learning chatbot, it has significant potential to support language learning. For example, it can provide authentic interactions, generate dialogues and produce text in various genres related to a specific topic, and adjust the complexity of the dialogue to cater to different proficiency levels. In a span of fewer than four months, ChatGPT has created a sensation worldwide. Its remarkable capabilities have captured the attention and sparked excitement among a wide range of individuals, from researchers to casual internet users (Hong, 2023).

Benefits of Chatbots for Language Teaching

The numerous features offered by chatbots not only benefits language learners but also  empowers language educators at different levels. For example, chatbot has the ability to assess student writing, provide constructive suggestions, develop lesson plans, generate various tasks, create questions (open-ended or multiple-choice) and scenarios, among other functions (Rudolph, 2023; Kohnke, 2023; Kohnke, 2021). Within this context, these features enable teachers to allocate their time to other essential tasks.

Large language models can also provide personalized content creation, differentiation and personalized instruction, and support professional development (Kasneci, et al, 2020).

Limitations of Chatbots in Language Learning and Teaching

While chatbots have shown promise in language learning and teaching, there are challenges and limitations to consider. Huang (2021) categorize the challenges associated with language learning into three main areas: technological limitations, novelty effects, and students’ cognitive load limitations.

Technological limitations include issues such as the perceived unnaturalness of computer-generated voices, failed communication due to incomplete or nonsensical responses from chatbots, and the absence of emotional and visible cues that impact students’ affective states. Additionally, chatbots with limited artificial intelligence struggle to understand inputs beyond their programmed range, leading to isolation of learners from the language learning environment.

The novelty effect refers to the initial motivation or performance boost students may experience when encountering a new technology like chatbots, but this enthusiasm tends to diminish over time, leading to a decline in interest.

Cognitive load refers to the additional mental effort students must exert during learning tasks, influenced by the instructional design of chatbot-supported activities. Complex elements like voice and animation can increase cognitive load, leading to difficulties in allocating attention and processing task information. Higher cognitive load can hinder language learning outcomes, particularly for students with lower proficiency levels.

Furthermore, Almelhes (2023) highlight that chatbots might not offer the equivalent level of human interaction and emotional support as human tutors do. Moreover, AI algorithms may struggle to capture the intricacies of language and culture, potentially resulting in errors or misunderstandings. Additionally, the effectiveness of AI-powered language learning methods could be contingent on the accessibility and quality of language datasets, which might be limited in certain scenarios.

Other researchers (Fryer, 2021) pointed out that for some learners, effectively communicating with chatbots to practice their second language (L2) can be difficult due to inherent communication issues with many current chatbot platforms.

Critical Issues Related to the Use of Chatbots

Although chatbots offer immense benefits to both teachers and students, many concerns associated with the use of this technology warrant attention. Issues identifying by different authors (Kohnke, 2023; Hong, 2023; Kasneci, 2023) include the following:

Ethical Concern

The ethical use of chatbots in education has raised several concerns. These include the potential for chatbots to be exploited for cheating purposes by students and the use of lesson plans and material produced by chatbots without considering copyrights by teachers. Kohnke (2023) pointed out that chatbots such as ChatGPT draws information from existing sources without considering copyrights, as such; it might not be ethical if teachers were to use the lesson plans and materials produced by ChatGPT. There are also implications to other stakeholders such as the educational institutions and materials developers.

Furthermore, because chatbots can provide instant responses and access to information, there is a risk that students may misuse them to seek answers during assessments or exams. There were cases of cheating and misconduct reported in the media (Levin, 2023; Peritz, 2022). Concerns regarding the utilization and potential misuse of ChatGPT have prompted successive bans on the recently emerged chatbot by educational institutions (Reuters, 2023). Teachers and school administrators perceive ChatGPT as a potential threat that will jeopardize the cultivation of students’ critical thinking and writing skills.

Accuracy of Chatbot Responses

Another concern revolves around the accuracy of chatbot responses. While chatbots have made remarkable advancements in natural language processing, they are not immune to errors or inaccuracies. Students relying solely on chatbots for learning may encounter instances where the responses provided are incorrect or misleading.

According to Thorp, 2023 and Hong, 2023, ChatGPT lacks the ability to comprehend the text it produces or grasp the context of the information, and it does not rely on reasoning or emotions to generate responses to user queries. Instead, it compares available data to provide the most probable and relevant answers, often based on frequency. Consequently, the answers received from the end-users may sound plausible but are actually incorrect or nonsensical.

One of the most concerning issue described by Marr (2023) is the phenomenon of hallucination. In the context of AI, the term refers to the production of outputs that may appear believable but are either factually inaccurate or disconnected from the provided context. According to the author, the generation of incorrect or misleading information by AI systems can lead to a loss of trust among users, impeding the widespread adoption of this technology across different sectors.

Cultural Bias or Stereotypes

Cultural bias is yet another significant concern in the use of chatbots. Language and communication are deeply influenced by cultural context, and chatbots may inadvertently perpetuate biases or stereotypes in their responses. Kohnke 2023 explain that most of the text in the database that ChatGPT uses is derived from an English corpus and then translated into target languages (e.g., Chinese, Japanese). This means that chatbot’s responses may reflect biases or stereotypes that are present in its training data, which could have negative effects on learners’ attitudes and beliefs about language and culture.

Replacement of Human Teachers by AI

There have been concerns around the potential for AI-powered language learning methods to replace human teachers, which could have implications for employment and job security in the education sector. From another perspective, Kohnke (2022) and Wang (2019) argue that chatbots are unable to replace human teachers as they lack the empathy and emotional intelligence that human teachers possess. Human presence is indispensable in providing consistent responsiveness, addressing unforeseen queries, and making essential adaptations to assigned tasks.

Effects of Chatbots on Learners’ Performance

Klimova and Seraj (2023) conducted a mini review to explore how chatbots can contribute to the development of students’ language skills and structures in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classrooms. The review includes a total of seven studies after applying all inclusion and exclusion criteria. Overall, the findings suggest that chatbots can have positive effects on students’ English skills, particularly in terms of speaking skills and engagement. The researchers point out that those students with low-level language skills benefited the most from using chatbots, while learners with high-level language skills felt dissatisfied using them

Huang (2022) carried out a systematic review of chatbot-supported language learning, Their findings from eight experimental studies yield different results from the aforementioned review.  Findings from Huang (2022) suggest that chatbots can have a positive impact on students’ language learning in certain areas, specifically grammar, listening, and writing. However, there is no evidence to suggest that chatbots improve students’ reading comprehension. The effectiveness of chatbots in enhancing vocabulary learning yielded mixed results, but these findings should be interpreted cautiously since they were based on only two experimental studies each. Importantly, none of the studies reported any adverse negative effects of using chatbots on language student learning outcomes. The authors conclude that our understanding of the effects of chatbot on student outcomes is still limited.

Recommendations for Designing Second Language Learning Chatbot

The technology of chatbots is in a constant state of evolution and refinement, with continuous development of new and improved versions. Kim et al. (2022) highlight the complexities associated with creating an effective second language (L2) chatbot compared to a first language (L1) chatbot. The authors recognized that designing a second language chatbot necessitates expertise in system design, architecture, and familiarity with second language acquisition (SLA) theories and instructional methods. Additionally, it requires a comprehensive understanding of the target L2 learners’ inter-language, language learning requirements, and proficiency levels. Despite these challenges, several endeavors have been made to design chatbots specifically for L2 learning purposes.

Yang (2022) at the Chung-Ang University in Korea described the design and implementation of a task-based voice chatbot named “Ellie” as a conversation partner in EFL speaking classes. The chatbot was developed over a period of three years using Dialogflow by Google, which utilizes machine learning algorithms to analyze user data and improve its performance. Ellie is designed to support multiplatform, including web and mobile apps for both iOS and Android devices. This allows students to access the chatbot using laptops, tablet PCs, or mobile phones as long as they have a Wi-Fi connection. The study involved 314 English learners in South Korea, including elementary school students (fifth or sixth graders) and first-year high school students. The participants had varying levels of English proficiency, ranging from beginners to intermediate-low levels. The study found that the variety of tasks offered by the chatbot helped students engage in meaningful and lengthy conversations more easily and comfortably in English, regardless of their proficiency level. The participants were able to negotiate meanings with their limited vocabulary and successfully achieve non-linguistic task goals. The study suggests that the task-based chatbot such as Ellie can help second language in developing their conversation skills and enhancing their English language learning experiences. However, there were also limitations identified, such as occasional comprehension failures due to classroom noise and inadequate responses to participants’ utterances.

To ensure its effectiveness and adaptability, researchers have put forth some key considerations to take into account for the future. For example, Fryer (2019) believes that it is important that chatbots can adjust or be adjusted to students’ language competence levels to better support language learning. He suggests that the most straightforward approach might simply be to develop a broad range of chatbots (or versions), both for different topics and a range of levels. Another point made by the authors is that chatbots should provide relevant information or assistance to users, rather than attempting to mimic human-like interactions in every aspect.

The same researcher further suggests (Fryer, 2020) that chatbots should be designed for specific audiences, rather than “one size fits all” approach. This is because different learners have different needs and preferences when it comes to language learning. For example, some learners may benefit from a chatbot that provides them with lots of input and feedback, while others may prefer a more conversational approach. In addition, a chatbot should provide a balance between providing enough input to ensure that learners persist in their studies and not overwhelming them with too much information at once.

One systematic review looked at a unique aspect of chatbot design to better meet the needs of L2 learners. Zhai and Wibowo (2022) examined numerous studies between 2012 and 2022, primarily focusing on L2 chatbot research available in popular databases. The review revealed that cross-cultural dimensions play a significant role in the effectiveness of AI chatbots for second language acquisition. The researchers identified areas for improvement in the development of AI chatbots in L2 education, such as incorporating cross-cultural empathetic responses, understanding learners’ perceptions and reactions to learning content, and investigating the effects of cross-cultural humor on language proficiency.

Yang (2022) suggests that for the development of second language chatbots, it is crucial to define agents by carefully selecting suitable task types. Additionally, the generation of chatbot intent should be based on an analysis of interlanguage discourse patterns and other indicators of task performance.


Within the realm of language learning, numerous language learning applications utilizing Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology are available to English educators and students/learners, with chatbots being just one among them. Based on the literature review, chatbots offer an immense value for both teachers and students. However, the current extent of adoption of AI chatbot tools by language teachers and learners remains uncertain. Fryer’s (2020) research indicates that language instructors rarely make use of chatbots, while Belda-Medina (2022) suggests a “moderate” appetite for future educators to embrace this technology. Data regarding the utilization of chatbots in language schools in Ontario is currently unavailable. Taking into account the significant debate generated by the use of chatbots within the language teaching community in Ontario, such as TESL Ontario (Teachers of English as a Second Language Association of Ontario), this discussion session delves into the adoption of chatbots in language learning and teaching, along with the ethical considerations surrounding the use of AI chatbots.

Adoption of AI Chatbot in language learning and teaching

The education community holds diverse opinions regarding the use of chatbots, particularly Chat-GPT. Some educators fully embrace its potential, while others outright ban its use. Some teachers utilize these tools to assist in preparing their teaching materials, yet they are hesitant about students utilizing them. Their concerns primarily revolve around students relying on chatbots to fabricate essays rather than creating their own work. Hong (2023) presents the concept of the “innovator’s dilemma,” suggesting that premature anxiety may overshadow the potential opportunities and transformative mindset that the emergence of chatbots brings forth.

Amidst these varied perspectives, it is crucial to acknowledge that chatbot technology is here to stay, whether we embrace it or not. As professionals, we need to actively consider our classrooms and the broader landscape, becoming aware, learning, discussing, and defining how we can navigate this new normal. Both teachers and students have a role to play in developing digital literacy. To effectively harness the potential of chatbots, educators must acquire new skills and competencies. This includes proficiency in utilizing and managing AI chatbot systems, analyzing student interactions with chatbots, and providing targeted support and feedback. Additionally, teachers must cultivate a classroom environment that strikes a balance between the benefits of AI chatbots and human interaction, ensuring that students continue to receive personalized attention and emotional support.

Ethical Considerations

In unit 2 of the EDDL-5151 course on social and ethical issues, it states that “technology is deeply interwoven with our ethics and social responsibilities” (para 1), this emphasizes the close connection between technology and our ethics and social responsibilities. The integration and use of technology in our lives require us to make important choices that reflect who we are and what matters to us. As technology continues to advance and permeate various aspects of society, it poses significant ethical challenges that require careful navigation. As an educator, we need to contemplate the ethical ramifications of technology, proactively mitigate potential harm, and strive for fair and inclusive access to technological resources.

Chatbots, with their advanced language processing capabilities, have the potential to generate text that mimics human-like responses, making it difficult to distinguish between content generated by a chatbot and original work produced by a student. This presents ethical concerns and challenges related to academic integrity. In order to adapt to the new challenges posed by AI tools, educational institutions may need to revise their academic policies. Furthermore, it is important to provide teacher training on AI topics and techniques to effectively address these changes.

Kohnke, 2023 emphasize the need for teachers and students to develop specific digital competencies to use AI-driven tools like ChatGPT in ethical ways. They suggest that educational institutions develop guidelines for using such tools and modifying teaching and assessment practices to prepare students for a world where AI-driven digital tools are commonplace.

The BC’s Digital Literacy Framework presents the concept of digital citizenship within the context of responsible and ethical behavior in the digital world. Digital citizenship refers to the “understanding human, cultural, and societal issues related to technology and practice legal and ethical behavior”(p. 3). While the framework does not provide explicit general guidelines for digital citizenship, it does highlight several aspects of digital citizenship that students should develop, such as, internet safety, privacy and security, creative credit and copyright, and legal and ethical aspects.

To support learners in becoming responsible and ethical users of AI tools, Allan (2023) presents some guiding principles for digital citizenship in a blog post for TESL Ontario. These include providing learners with explicit guidelines on how to effectively and responsibly use technology such as AI tools; model and encourage respectful communication in the digital realm; educate learners on the significance of safeguarding their personal information, understanding privacy settings, and adopting secure practices when utilizing AI tools and navigating digital platforms; encourage learners to think critically, question information, and verify its authenticity; and empower students to express their ideas, perspectives, and concerns on both local and global platforms. These guiding principles of digital citizenship serve as a foundation for our learners to navigate the digital world responsibly and ethically.

Conclusion and Potential Research Areas

In conclusion, this literature review has shed light on the use of chatbots in language learning and teaching. Chatbots have the potential to revolutionize language learning and teaching by providing convenient access to language practice, personalized learning materials, and various language-related tasks. However, careful consideration is necessary to address the challenges, limitations, and critical issues associated with chatbot implementation. With ongoing research and development, chatbots can become valuable tools in language education, supporting both learners and educators in achieving their language learning objectives.

As the field of using chatbots for language learning and teaching continues to evolve and mature, it can be anticipated that novel investigations will arise pertaining to the capacity of the technology and its implications (Hong 2023). Future researchers can exam the effectiveness of chatbots in facilitating language learning outcomes, explore experience and perceptions of language learners utilizing the application for language learning purposes, investigate teachers’ perception of chatbot as a teaching tool, the potential of using it to alleviate teacher workload and how teachers are leveraging the platform.



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The Use of ChatBot for Language Learning and Teaching

 Annotated Bibliography

 Belda-Medina, J. & Calvo-Ferrer, JR. (2022) Using chatbots as AI conversational partners in language learning. Appl. Sci,12, 8427.

This study provides an overview of the potential benefits and challenges of using chatbots as AI conversational partners in language learning. The authors at the university of Alicante Spain conducted mixed-method research about the knowledge, level of satisfaction, and perceptions concerning chatbot integration among future educators. They find that future educators have a low knowledge of modern chatbots; female participants were more attentive to the use of inclusive design and language, and more assertive about gender stereotyping; there were positive outcomes in perceived usefulness, easiness, and attitudes toward chatbot integration but a moderate interest in using them in the near future.

Overall, the study provides valuable insights into the potential benefits and challenges of using chatbots as AI conversational partners in language learning. While there are limitations to their use, incorporating chatbots into a larger language learning program has the potential to enhance student engagement with course material while providing personalized feedback to students.

Chuah, KM., Kabilan, MK., Samarhan, K. (2021)Teachers’ views on the use of chatbots to support English language teaching in a mobile environment.
iJET ‒ Vol. 16, No. 20.

This paper explores the potential of chatbots in enhancing the teaching and learning experience for ESL teachers and students. The researchers at the University Sains Malaysia collected data from teachers who were required to use chatbots as part of their mobile learning activities for about two months. Prior to designing the mobile learning tasks, the teachers were also required to use chatbots in order to identify the features available. Some example tasks were also given to teachers as guidance. In line with the study done by Belda-Medina (2022), the authors find that chatbots are seen as useful tools to support teachers. Learners can engage in conversations that highlight how specific words or phrases are used in a friendlier mode. Additionally, chatbots can provide immediate feedback and personalized learning experiences for students.  The authors note that this is in line with a previous study done by Go and Sundar, which found that human-like chatbots would increase the level of interactivity. Overall, the feedback from open-ended questions indicates a strong acceptance among teachers with regard to chatbots being their assistant in guiding learners. However, there are some limitations and challenges associated with using chatbots in a mobile environment for language learning. For example, some students may prefer face-to-face interactions with their teachers or may not have access to reliable internet connections. In conclusion, this paper provides valuable insights into how chatbots can be used as an effective tool for English language teaching in a mobile environment. While there are some limitations and challenges associated with using chatbots, they have the potential to enhance student engagement and provide personalized learning experiences. This paper is recommended for educators who are interested in incorporating technology into their teaching methods or exploring new ways to engage students in language learning activities.


 Fryer, LK. (2020) Bots for language learning now: current and future directions. Lang. Learn. Technol.24(2). 8-22.

This article reviews the promising role of chatbots in foreign language learning. The authors argue that chatbot has the potential to become useful language-learning partner.  Examples of chatbots currently being used for language-learning and how chatbots can be designed to better support language learners and potential challenges or limitations of using chatbots for language learning were discussed. One key point made in the article is that designing chatbots for specific audiences, rather than communicating with more or less any kind of user, could be a more effective approach. This is because different learners have different needs and preferences when it comes to language learning. The article also discussed Mayer’s cognitive processing principle and ways to reduce extraneous processing and three means of supporting learners in learning multimedia information. These guidelines can provide directions for enhancing the usefulness of the present chatbot technology. Overall, this article provides valuable insights into the potential of chatbots in foreign language learning.


Hong, W. (2023) The impact of ChatGPT on foreign language teaching and learning: Opportunities in education and research. J. Educ. Technol 37-45.

This article explores the impact of ChatGPT, an advanced chatbot based on OpenAI’s Generative Pre-trained Transformer-3 (GPT-3) family of large language models, on foreign language teaching and learning. The authors at the University of Hong Kong discuss the potential benefits of using ChatGPT in education, such as providing a more personalized learning experience for students. They also highlight some issues and risks associated with its usage, such as concerns about the accuracy and appropriateness of its responses. The article provides a set of rudimentary design principles for chatbots for meaningfully implementing educational chatbots in language learning and detailed suggestions for future research. Overall, this article offers valuable insights into the potential opportunities and challenges associated with using advanced chatbots like ChatGPT in education. While it is clear that ChatGPT has the potential to revolutionize language learning, further research is needed to fully understand its impact and address any concerns or limitations associated with its usage.


Huang, W., Hew, KF, & Fryer, LK. (2021) Chatbots for language learning—Are they really useful? A systematic review of chatbot-supported language learning. J. Comput. Assist. Learn, 11 August.

This systematic review article explores the usefulness of chatbots in language learning, with a focus on both first and second-language learning. The authors take a theoretical perspective to analyze the utility and usability of chatbots for teaching and learning purposes in language learning contexts. They identify several technological, pedagogical, and social affordances associated with chatbots in language learning, including personalized feedback, increased motivation, and enhanced communication skills. The article also discusses the challenges related to chatbot use, such as limited natural language processing capabilities and potential privacy concerns. The authors provide possible solutions to address these challenges, such as incorporating more advanced AI technologies and ensuring data privacy regulations are followed. Overall, this article provides a comprehensive overview of the current state of research on chatbots for language learning. It offers valuable insights into the benefits and limitations of using chatbots in language education and provides suggestions for future research directions. This article is recommended for educators interested in incorporating technology into their language teaching practices or researchers interested in exploring the potential of chatbots for language learning.


Jeon, J.(2022) Exploring AI chatbot affordances in the EFL classroom: young learners’ experiences and perspectives, CALL, DOI:10.1080/09588221.2021.2021241.

In this article, Jeon at Seoul National University of Education highlights the potential benefits of utilizing chatbots in language classrooms, such as providing opportunities or helping to create a more anxiety-free atmosphere. He notes that little is known about learners’ actual use of chatbots during language classes or how chatbots affect their motivation to learn a language.

Jeon’s study involved 18 young learners who interacted with AI chatbots during their EFL classes. The findings indicated that students viewed the chatbots as conversational partners with whom they could engage while carrying out tasks. This perception facilitated their motivation to use them, which led to active engagement in speaking English. The students felt that the chatbots were real human-like conversation partners and could practice listening and speaking English with them. In line with Belda-Medina 2022, the study shows the potential benefits of using chatbots as AI conversational partners to enhance learning experiences for students. The author highlights the importance of creating an interactive and engaging environment for language learning, which can be achieved through the use of technology such as AI chatbots. However, it also raises questions about how effective these tools are in improving language proficiency and whether they can replace human interaction entirely. Overall, this is a well-researched article that sheds light on an emerging trend in language education. It provides valuable insights into how technology can be used to enhance learning experiences for students and encourages further research into this area.


Kasneci, E., Sessler, KS., Kiichemann, S., Bannert et at. (2023) ChatGPT for good? On opportunities and challenges of large language models for education. Learn Individ Differ, 103.

The article provides an insightful discussion of the opportunities and challenges of large language models for education. The authors argue that large language models have the potential to revolutionize teaching by providing teachers with a wide range of tools and resources that can assist with lesson planning, personalized content creation, differentiation and personalized instruction, assessment, and professional development. Similar to Kohnke (2023), the study also highlights some ethical concerns surrounding the use of AI in education, such as potential bias in the output, the need for continuous human oversight, and the potential for misuse of large language models. The authors suggest that these challenges can be insightful in learning and education scenarios to acquaint students early on with potential societal biases and risks of AI application. Overall, this article provides a balanced perspective on the potential impact of artificial intelligence on educational technologies. It is a valuable resource for educators who are interested in exploring how AI can be used to enhance teaching and learning experiences while being mindful of its limitations and ethical implications.


Kohnke, L., Moorhouse, BL., & Zou, D. (2023) ChatGPT for language teaching and learning. Technology Review. RELC Journal. 1-14.

In this article, Kohnke et al provide a sound technology review of ChatGPT, one of the most advanced AI-powered chatbots that was released in November 2022. ChatGPT has the potential to support language teaching and learning. The authors illustrate several figures to show the types of learning tasks that teachers and learners can use. They discuss a number of drawbacks and debates related to its use. In addition, they address some important issues such as digital competencies for ethical and effective use of ChatGPT. The authors present a balanced view of the benefits and challenges of using ChatGPT, which makes their arguments more convincing. The practical strategies presented for addressing some of the challenges associated with using AI chatbots in language teaching and learning are valuable. Overall, this article is a great resource for language teachers who are interested in incorporating AI chatbots into their teaching practice. It provides a clear understanding of what ChatGPT can offer, as well as some important considerations for ethical and effective use.


Kohnke, L. (2022) A pedagogical chatbot: A supplemental language learning tool. RELC. 1-11.

Kohnke at the University of Hong Kong describes an innovative chatbot he developed to support and motivate language learners during the COVID-19 pandemic at the school. The chatbot was developed to facilitate active, out-of-class language learning to supplement in-class input. It is user-friendly, able to reach students on multiple platforms, and is accessible 24/7. In addition, the chatbot has the ability to adapt to learners’ abilities and pace.  The author provides information on the development, implementation, training, and evaluation of the chatbot. The article offers some good suggestions for teachers who are interested in developing and implementing a text-based chatbot to enhance their language teaching. Overall, this article presents an innovative approach to language learning that has the potential to enhance motivation and independent learning in students. While there are limitations to this approach (such as potential technical difficulties), this article suggests that chatbots have a promising future as supplemental language learning tools.



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